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RNI 249®

Scientific Studies

(1) Andrews K, Grunebaum AN: Composition and method for fertility therapy using nutritional supplements. USPTO No. 8,663,709. 2014 Mar 4.


(2) Zhang Y, Yu L, Jin W, Ao M: Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2014 Jul;46(4):416-9.


(3) Zha S, Zhao Q, Chen J et al: Extraction, purification and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from maca (Lepidium meyenii). Carbohydr Polym. 2014 Oct 13;111:584-7.


(4) Hajdu Z, Nicolussi S, Rau M et al: Identification of Endocannabinoid System-Modulating N-Alkylamides from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra and Lepidium meyenii. J Nat Prod. 2014 Jul 25;77(7):1663-9.


(5) Stojanovska L, Law C, Lai B et al Maca reduces blood pressure and depression, in a pilot study in postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2014 Aug 7:1-10.


(6) Ai Z, Cheng AF, Yu YT et al: Antidepressant-like behavioral, anatomical, and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress. J Med Food. 2014 May;17(5):535-42.


(7) Benites Goñi HE, Cok García J, Bussalleu Cavero A et al: Assesing the effect of Lepidium meyenii “Maca” on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia. Rev Gastroenterol Peru. 2014 Jan-Mar;34(1):39-43 (Spanish).


(8) Gonzales GF, Villaorduña L, Gasco M, Rubio J et al: Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), a review of its biological properties. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2014;31(1):100-10 (Spanish).


(9) Lembè DM, Gasco M, Gonzales GF:Synergistic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) and Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae) on male sexual organs and hormone level in rats. Pharmacognosy Res. 2014 Jan;6(1):80-6.


(10) Uchiyama F, Jikyo T, Takeda R et al: Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Feb 3;151(2):897-902.


(11) Gonzales GF, Gasco M, Lozada-Requena I: Role of maca (Lepidium meyenii) consumption on serum interleukin-6 levels and health status in populations living in the Peruvian Central Andes over 4000 m of altitude. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2013 Dec;68(4):347-51.


(12) Wu H, Kelley CJ, Pino-Figueroa A et al: Macamides and their synthetic analogs: evaluation of in vitro FAAH inhibition. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Sep 1;21(17):5188-97.


(13) Almukadi H, Wu H, Böhlke M et al: The macamide N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide is a time-dependent fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor. Mol Neurobiol. 2013 Oct;48(2):333-9.


(14) Gonzales GF, Vasquez VB, Gasco M: The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: the effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2013 Oct;23(8):559-65.


(15) Gonzales GF, Gonzales-Castañeda C, Gasco M: A mixture of extracts from Peruvian plants (black maca and yacon) improves sperm count and reduced glycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2013 Sep;23(7):509-18.


(16) Shrivastava A, Gupta VB: Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update. J Midlife Health. 2012 Jan;3(1):10-9.


(17) Clément C, Witschi U, Kreuzer M: The potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review. Anim Reprod Sci. 2012 May;132(1-2):1-10.


(18) Bobrowski, PJ: Methods and compositions to enhance endogenous IGF production and their use. USPTO No. 8182847: 2012 May 22.


(19) Gonzales GF: Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012:193496.


(20) Zhao J, Avula B, Chan M et al: Metabolomic differentiation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) accessions cultivated under different conditions using NMR and chemometric analysis. Planta Med. 2012 Jan;78(1):90-101.


(21) Bobrowski P: Methods and compositions to enhance endogenous IGF production and their uses. USPTO 8,182,847: May 22, 2012.


(22) Akhtar N, Miller MJ, Haqqi TM: Effect of a Herbal-Leucine mix on the IL-1β-induced cartilage degradation and inflammatory gene expression in human chondrocytes. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Aug



(23) Lee MS, Shin BC, Yang EJ et al: Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Maturitas. 2011 Nov;70(3):227-33.


(24) Gonzales-Castañeda C, Rivera V, Chirinos AL et al: Photoprotection against the UVB-induced oxidative stress and epidermal damage in mice using leaves of three different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (maca).


(25) Int J Dermatol. 2011 Aug;50(8):928-38.


(26) Rubio J, Yucra S, Gasco M et al: Dose-response effect of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice with memory impairment induced by ethanol. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011 Oct;21(8):628-34.


(27) Rubio J, Qiong W, Liu X et al: Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:253958.


(28) Gonzales C, Leiva-Revilla J, Rubio J et al: Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Andrologia. 2012 May;44 Suppl 1:362-9.


(29) Clément C, Diaz Grados DA, Avula B et al: Influence of colour type and previous cultivation on secondary metabolites in hypocotyls and leaves of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers). J Sci Food Agric. 2010 Apr 15;90(5):861-9.


(30) Mazaro-Costa R, Andersen ML, Hachul H, Tufik S.: Medicinal plants as alternative treatments for female sexual dysfunction: utopian vision or possible treatment in climacteric women? J Sex Med. 2010 Nov; 7(11):3695-714.


(31) Zheng BL, He K, Shao Y et al: Compositions and methods for their preparation from lepidium. USPTO No. RE43,005. 2001 Dec 6.


(32) Pino-Figueroa A, Nguyen D, Maher TJ: Neuroprotective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca). Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Jun;1199:77-85.


(33) Ranilla LG, Kwon YI, Apostolidis E et al: Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America. Bioresour Technol. 2010 Jun;101(12):4676-89.


(34) Clément C, Kneubühler J, Urwyler A et al: Effect of maca supplementation on bovine sperm quantity and quality followed over two spermatogenic cycles. Theriogenology. 2010 Jul 15;74(2):173-83.


(35) Shin BC, Lee MS, Yang EJ et al: Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review.BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Aug 6;10:44.


(36) Gonzales C, Cárdenas-Valencia I, Leiva-Revilla J et al: Effects of different varieties of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized rats. Forsch Komplementmed. 2010;17(3):137-43.


(37) Gonzales GF, Gonzales C, Gonzales-Castañeda C: Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru–from tradition to science. Forsch Komplementmed. 2009 Dec;16(6):373-80.

(38) Stone M, Ibarra A, Roller M et al: A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 10;126(3):574-6.


(39) Zenico T, Cicero AF, Valmorri L et al: Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia. 2009 Apr;41(2):95-9.


(40) Gonzales-Castañeda C, Gonzales GF: Hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant of the Peruvian highlands, prevent ultraviolet A-, B-, and C-induced skin damage in rats. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2008 Feb;24(1):24-31.


(41) Valentová K, Stejskal D, Bartek J et al: Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: in vivo safety assessment. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Mar;46(3):1006-13.


(42) Gonzales GF, Gasco M, Malheiros-Pereira A et al: Antagonistic effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice. Andrologia. 2008 Jun;40(3):179-85.


(43) Dording CM, Fisher L, Papakostas G et al: A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2008 Fall;14(3):182-91.


(44) Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ et al: Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause. 2008 Nov-Dec;15(6):1157-62.


(45) Wang Y, Wang Y, McNeil B et al: Maca: An Andean Crop with multi-pharmacological functions. Food Res Inter. 2007 40:783-92.


(46) Lentz A, Gravitt K, Carson CC et al: Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior. J Sex Med. 2007 Mar;4(2):332-9; discussion 339-40.


(47) Yucra S, Gasco M, Rubio J et al: Effect of different fractions from hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on testicular function in adult male rats. Fertil Steril. 2008 May;89(5 Suppl):1461-7. Epub 2007 Jul 31.


(48) Vecera R, Orolin J, Skottová N et al: The influence of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on antioxidant status, lipid and glucose metabolism in rat. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007 Jun;62(2):59-63.


(49) Gasco M, Aguilar J, Gonzales GF: Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats. Andrologia. 2007 Aug;39(4):151-8.


(50) Gasco M, Villegas L, Yucra S, Rubio J et al: Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate. Phytomedicine. 2007 Aug;14(7-8):460-4.


(51) Rubio J, Dang H, Gong M et al: Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Oct;45(10):1882-90. Epub 2007 Apr 20.


(52) Mehta K, Gala J, Bhasale S et al: Comparison of glucosamine sulfate and a polyherbal supplement for the relief of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN25438351]. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Oct 31;7:34.


(53) Gonzales GF, Valerio LG Jr: Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2006 Sep;6(5):429-44


(54) Gonzales GF, Nieto J, Rubio J, Gasco M: Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats. Andrologia. 2006 Oct;38(5):166-72.


(55) Rubio J, Caldas M, Dávila S et al: Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Jun 23;6:23.


(56) Miller MJ, Ahmed S, Bobrowski P et al: The chrondoprotective actions of a natural product are associated with the activation of IGF-1 production by human chondrocytes despite the presence of IL-1beta. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Apr 7;6:13.

(57) Valentová K, Buckiová D, Kren V et al: The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts.Cell Biol Toxicol. 2006 Mar;22(2):91-9.


(58) Rubio J, Riqueros MI, Gasco M et al: Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced damage on reproductive function in male rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Jul;44(7):1114-22.


(59) Zhang Y, Yu L, Ao M et al: Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 21;105(1-2):274-9.


(60) Bogani P, Simonini F, Iriti M et al: Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 6;104(3):415-7.


(61) Gonzales C, Rubio J, Gasco M et al: Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20;103(3):448-



(62) Valerio LG Jr, Gonzales GF: Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii): a critical synopsis. Toxicol Rev. 2005;24(1):11-35. Review.


(63) Ruiz-Luna AC, Salazar S, Aspajo NJ et al: Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005 May 3;3:16.


(64) Chung F, Rubio J, Gonzales C et al: Dose-response effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) aqueous extract on testicular function and weight of different organs in adult rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 8;98(1-2):143-7.


(65) Zhao J, Muhammad I, Dunbar DC et al: New alkamides from maca (Lepidium meyenii). J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 9;53(3):690-3.


(66) Bustos-Obregon E, Yucra S et al: Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice. Asian J Androl. 2005 Mar;7(1):71-6.


(67) Cui B, Zheng B, He K et al: Imidazole alkaloids from Lepidium meyenii and methods of usage. USPTO No. 6,878,731. 2005 Apr 12.

(68) Gonzales GF, Miranda S, Nieto J et al: Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced 2005 Jan 20;3:5.


(69) Gonzales GF, Gasco M, Córdova A et al: Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m). J Endocrinol. 2004 Jan;180(1):87-95.


(70) Bobrowski Paul (PI): Enhanced IGF-1 Production by Human Cartilage. 2004. NIH National Institute on Aging #1R43AG024733-01.


(71) Zheng B, He K, Shao Y et al: Compositions and methods for their preparation from lepidium. USPTO No. 6,552,206. 2003 Apr 22.


(72) Valentová K, Ulrichová J: Smallanthus sonchifolius and Lepidium meyenii – prospective Andean crops for the prevention of chronic diseases. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2003 Dec;147(2):119-30.


(73) Gonzales GF, Rubio J, Chung A et al: Effect of alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on testicular function in male rats. Asian J Androl. 2003 Dec;5(4):349-



(74) Comhaire FH, Mahmoud A: The role of food supplements in the treatment of the infertile man. Reprod Biomed Online. 2003 Oct-Nov;7(4):385-91.


(75) Oshima M, Gu Y, Tsukada S: Effects of Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha on blood levels of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone, testosterone and the rate of embryo implantation in mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2003 Oct;65(10):1145-6.


(76) Cui B, Zheng BL, He K et al: Imidazole alkaloids from Lepidium meyenii. J Nat Prod. 2003 Aug;66(8):1101-3.


(77) Gonzales GF, Córdova A, Vega K et al: Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men. J Endocrinol. 2003 Jan;176(1):163-8.


(78) Cicero AF, Piacente S, Plaza A et al: Hexanic Maca extract improves rat sexual performance more effectively than methanolic and chloroformic Maca extracts. Andrologia. 2002 Jun;34(3):177-9.


(79) Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Angeles FMet al: Antioxidant activity of the cruciferous vegetable Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Food Chemistry 2002. 79: 207-213.


(80) Zheng B, Kim C, Wolthoff S et al: Treatment of sexual dysfunction with an extract of Lepidium meyenii roots. USPTO No. 6,428,824. 2002 Aug 6.


(81) Piacente S, Carbone V, Plaza A et al: Investigation of the tuber constituents of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Sep 25;50(20):5621-5.


(82) Gonzales GF, Córdova A, Vega K et al: Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia. 2002 Dec;34(6):367-72.


(83) Muhammad I, Zhao J, Dunbar DC et al: Constituents of Lepidium meyenii ‘maca’. Phytochemistry. 2002 Jan;59(1):105-10.


(84) Zheng B, Kim C, Wolthoff S et al: Extract of Lepidium meyenii roots for pharmaceutical applications. USPTO No. 6,267,995. 2001 Jul 31.

(85) Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Gonzales C et al: Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J Androl. 2001 Dec;3(4):301-3.


(86) Gonzales GF, Ruiz A, Gonzales C et al: Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats. Asian J Androl. 2001 Sep;3(3):231-3.


(87) Cicero AF, Bandieri E, Arletti R: Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behavior in male rats independently from its action on spontaneous locomotor activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 May;75(2-3):225-9.


(88) Canales M, Aguilar J, Prada A et al: Nutritional evaluation of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) in albino mice and their descendants. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2000 Jun;50(2):126-33 (Spanish).


(89) Zheng BL, He K, Kim CH et al: Effect of a lipidic extract from Lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats. Urology. 2000 Apr;55(4):598-602.

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